Saturday, July 24, 2010

Cyber Laws

Viacom logo.Image via Wikipedia

Cyber Laws 

By Matt Russo

The internet is a melting pot for all types of media.  The creation of the internet has opened up a whole new area of employment. Many people make their livelihood from the internet, some not all good. Everyone is now aware that downloading music for free online is illegal but there is also a present lawsuit pending involving YouTube. Viacom representing numerous other entities such as Paramount Pictures, BET, CMT, etc. is suing YouTube for posting their media alleging that just compensation for their original works is being denied.
“As a result, plaintiffs allege that certain of their writers, composers and performers are being denied just compensation for their original works:”Viacom Intern., Inc. v. YouTube, Inc.  2009 WL 102808, 1 (N.D.Cal.) (N.D.Cal.,2009)

YouTube moved for summary judgment under 17 U.S.C. § 512(c), “safe harbor” rules allow internet servers the ability to post copyright material is they don’t have knowledge or notice of everything posted. The lawsuit is still pending and could set a new precedent for internet postings.
This is just an example of how the internet has not only created a new world of employment but also a whole new set of laws, Cyber laws.
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Wednesday, July 21, 2010

Internet History

This is the most up-to-date DARPA logo.Image via Wikipedia
The Internet was invented in the United States during the late 1950s to the 1970s by a group of researchers and scientists at the newly formed Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) after the former Soviet Union launched Sputnik. Realizing that the United States had suffered a great technological blow by allowing the USSR to hold the first successful satellite launch, ARPA set out to create a brand new technology unlike anything that had ever been done before; and the Internet was the result of their hard work.[1]
The idea of Internet was led out by J.C.R. Licklider in his 1960 paper about computer networking. Licklider became head of information processing at the U.S. military's research agency ARPA (later to become known as DARPA) a couple of years later.[2]

In 1958 the concerns of people in the US military triggered the creation of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).
DARPA's initial role was to jump start American research in technology, find safeguards against a space-based missile attack and to reclaim the technological lead from the USSR. After only 18 months after the creation of DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency had developed and deployed the first US satellite. DARPA went on to have a direct contribution to the development of the Internet by appointing Joseph Licklider to head the new Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO).[3]

In October, 1962, Licklider was hired by Jack Ruina as Director of the newly established IPTO within DARPA, with a mandate to interconnect the United States Department of Defense's main computers at Cheyenne Mountain, the Pentagon, and SAC HQ. There he formed an informal group within DARPA to further computer research. He began by writing memos describing a distributed network to the IPTO staff, whom he called "Members and Affiliates of the Intergalactic Computer Network". As part of the information processing office's role, three network terminals had been installed: one for System Development Corporation in Santa Monica, one for Project Genie at the University of California, Berkeley and one for the Compatible Time-Sharing System project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Licklider's identified need for inter-networking would be made obvious by the apparent waste of resources this caused.

Although he left the IPTO in 1964, five years before the ARPANET went live, it was his vision of universal networking that provided the impetus that led his successors such as Lawrence Roberts and Robert Taylor to further the ARPANET development.[4]

In the 1980s, ARPANET was handed over to a separate new military network, the Defense Data Network, and NSFNET, a network of scientific and academic computers funded by the National Science Foundation. In 1995, NSFNet in turn began a phased withdrawal to turn the backbone of the Internet (called vBNS) over to a consortium of commercial backbone providers (PSINet, UUNET,ANS/AOL, Sprint, MCI, and AGIS-Net99).[5]

The first networking protocol used on the ARPANET was the Network Control Program. In 1983, it was replaced with the TCP/IP protocol invented Wby Robert Kahn, Vinton Cerf, and others, which quickly became the most widely used network protocol in the world.
In 1990, the ARPANET was retired and transferred to the NSFNET. The NSFNET was soon connected to the CSNET, which linked Universities around North America, and then to the EUnet, which connected research facilities in Europe. Thanks in part to the NSF's enlightened management, and fueled by the popularity of the web, the use of the Internet exploded after 1990, causing the US Government to transfer management to independent organizations starting in 1995.[6]

[1] Who invented the Internet?
[2] When was the Internet invented? › ... › Internet Networking
[5] What is ARPANET?,,sid7_gci213782,00.html
[6] Internet History

Also see … An anecdotal history of the people and communities that brought about the Internet and the Web at
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Monday, July 19, 2010

History of Internet and WWW Revisited

Tim Berners-Lee: The World Wide Web - Opportun...Image by Fräulein Schiller via Flickr
History of Internet and WWW Revisited: Tim Berners-Lee, World Wide Web, ISP, Broadband and Wireless
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History of the Internet

Internet History

Tim Berners-Lee at Campus Party Brasil, 2009Image via Wikipedia

I will be using the words "internet", "web", "web page", "website", and "online" interchangeably, but they all basically mean the same. According to WordNet, internet is defined as "a computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network protocols to facilitate data transmission and exchange.[1]

Who invented the web?

This would be a tough question to answer if the internet didn't exist. I guess depending on the age, a person might say that Netscape, America Online, Yahoo, Microsoft or Google may have created the internet; and they would be wrong. Those companies that have invented web browsers that allows users to view and search for information published onto the internet. In order to publish information online, a website must be created and managed by a web hostThe web host stores the website and all its web pages and makes it available to computers connected to the internet using TCP/IP networks. Websites and web pages is what contains the data or information that is viewed on browsers and created using computer programming scripts such as, XML, C#, ASP, C+, Java, and HTML that was all grandfathered by Tim Berners-Lee; inventor of Hyper-text Markup Language (HTML) [3]

The evolution of ARAPANET email

Electronic mail is a natural and perhaps inevitable use of networked communication technology that developed along with the evolution of the Internet. Indeed, message exchange in one form or another has existed from the early days of timesharing computers. Network capable email was developed for the ARPANET shortly after it's creation, and has now evolved into the powerful email technology that is the most widely used application on the Internet today.

Who Regulates the Web?

The web is regulated by the W3C organization and its mission is to lead the World Wide Web (W3) to its fullest potential by way of setting standards and creating guidelines that will promote long-term growth and development into unique products and services.[4] Tim Berners-Lee is part of the W3C management team and has a very interesting biography. [5]

Tim Berner-Lee is the overall Director of W3C, is the distinguished 3COM Founders Professor of Engineering in the School of Engineering, and at the Department of Electrical Engineering and Comuter Science at MITs CSAIL. 

Tim invented the World Wide Web in 1989 while working at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. He wrote the first WWW client (a browser-editor running under NeXTStep) and the first WWW server along with most of the communications software, defining URLs, HTTP and HTML. [6]

[1] Princeton University, WordNet, definition of "Internet" (accessed: 06/24/2010)

[2] Glow Virtual Web Services, definition of "web host" (accessed: 06/24/2010)

[3] The inventor of the web found at, History of HTML - Tim Berners-Lee (accessed: 06/24/2010)

[4] World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), W3C Mission (accessed: 06/24/2010)

[5] World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), People -Tim Berners-Lee (accessed: 06/24/2010),

[6] World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), People -Tim Berners-Lee (accessed: 06/24/2010),
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